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The Jazz Age: Russell Barnett Aitken and the Viennese Influence

American design of the 1920s was influenced by Vienna nearly as much as by Paris, where the Austrian city was admired as a center of design education and production. As early as the 19th century, the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Applied Arts) was approaching design holistically, breaking down barriers between disciplines. The next century embraced design reformers such as Josef Hoffmann who applied their ideas to traditional crafts with the goal of producing a coherent and connected environment through related patterns, forms, and colors.

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